There are various types of courses within the Graduate School: compulsory courses, optional courses, and extended literature courses. The courses on Historical Problems and Historical Theory are compulsory for doctoral students within the Graduate School partnership. Optional courses are also offered within the framework of the Graduate School, but may also – space permitting – be made available to other doctoral students in subjects with a historical perspective.The aim of the extended literature courses is to enhance the quality of individual literature studies. A teacher plus a minimum of four doctoral students from at least two of the participating universities get together for a day-long examination seminar. Doctoral students are free to initiate extended literature courses themselves.